Tropical west Africa
An aggressive, troublesome, difficult-to-control weed (Nelson 1996). Has vigorously invaded intact, undisturbed hardwood forests in south Florida; can climb high into the tree canopy of mature forests, completely enshrouding native vegetation and reducing native plant diversity (Hammer 1996).
Evergreen, climbing, woody vine, with young stems densely hairy and mature stems glabrous. Leaves opposite, trifoliolate, leaf and leaflets stalked; terminal leaflet larger, to 7 cm (4 in) long, with a stalk to 5 cm (2 in) long; leaflets broadly ovate, pubescent above and below, with pointed tips. Flowers white, quite fragrant, opening at night, in broad, branched clusters at leaf axils; petals fused into a narrow, slightly curved tube to 2.5 cm (1 in) long, with 5-7 terminal lobes shorter than the tube, spreading in star-shaped fashion. Fruit a small, fleshy, roundish, black, 2-lobed berry. (Langeland and Burks, 1998)
Flowers all year, most abundantly in spring; ripe fruit found from early summer into early winter (Hammer 1996). Abounds on fences, power poles, hedges, and other disturbed sites (Morton 1976).
Introduced into Florida for ornament in the early 1920s; first described from Brazil, but actually introduced there from Africa by Portuguese explorers (Hammer 1996).
Naturalized populations of J. fluminense documented by herbarium specimens from Miami-Dade, Monroe, St. Lucie, and Highlands counties (Wunderlin et al. 1996).
Cut-stump: 50% Garlon® 3A or 10% Garlon® 4. Basal bark: 10% Garlon® 4. It is helpful to pull runners back to the main stem, cut, and apply Garlon® 3A or Garlon® 4 to the cut stem. Retreatment of areas is usually necessary. Foliar: 5% Roundup®. Manual: newly emerged seedlings can be hand pulled (Langeland, Ferrell, and Sellers 2011).