India to China and Southeast Asia
Forms a thick vine blanket that threatens to alter hardwood regeneration and hammock ecology (Schmitz et al. 1997). Woody tropical vines such as P. cruddasiana may “present a greater potential for strong negative interactions with subtropical hardwood forest regeneration than herbaceous vines or woody hemiphytes” (Horvitz et al. 1998), and were thought to be the greatest threat to hammock recovery after Hurricane Andrew (Randall et al. 1997).
Deciduous, perennial, twining vine from woody rootstock; stems to 10 m (33 ft) or more, glabrous or with a few hairs, climbing or trailing along the ground and rooting at the nodes; foliage with disagreeable odor when crushed. Leaves opposite, with conspicuous triangular stipules to 0.6 cm (0.2 in) long; ovate to elliptic, glabrous, lower surface sometimes with tufts of hair near midrib or with hairs along upper and lower veins, to 16 cm (6.3 in) long and 10 cm (4 in) wide; margins entire, bases rounded to heart shaped, tips acute to very long-pointed; petioles to 10 cm (4 in) long. Flowers small, grayish pink or whitish pink with a dark purple throat, in showy, elongate, many-branched, leafy clusters to 50 cm (20 in) long; corolla densely hairy, tubular, with 5 spreading lobes. Fruit shiny, brown or yellowish brown, flattened, an elliptic to broadly ovate capsule to 1.1 cm (0.5 in) long, with 2 black, winged, elliptic- to broadly-ovate seeds (Cherry & Langeland 2008).
Differs from the nonnative, invasive P. foetida, skunk vine, which has round fruits and round seeds that lack wings; however, it is very similar in smell, appearance, and habit (Cherry & Langeland 2008).
Possibly introduced as a fiber source along with P. foetida in the early 1900s, or perhaps a more recent introduction, but not correctly identified until 1995 (Hammer 1995, Morton 1976).
Herbarium specimens documented from Miami-Dade County (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).
Foliar: 3%-5% Roundup®. Basal bark: 10% Garlon® 4. Within 2-4 weeks re-treat the area with basal applications of 10% Garlon® This second treatment can be time-consuming because many underground runners sprout. The area should continue to be monitored for follow-up treatments (Langeland, Ferrell, and Sellers 2011).